The Deep Ecology
by Arne Naess and
The eight-point Deep Ecology Platform at present
of the deep ecology
1. The well-being and flourishing
of human and nonhuman life on Earth have
value in themselves (synonyms: inherent worth,
are independent of the usefulness
of the nonhuman world for human purposes.
2. Richness and diversity of
life-forms contribute to the realization of
these values and are also values in themselves.
3. Humans have no right to reduce
this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs.
4. Present human interference
with the nonhuman world is excessive, and the situation is
5. The flourishing of human life
and cultures is compatible with a substantial decrease of the
human population. The flourishing
6. Policies must therefore be
changed. The changes in policies affect basic economic,
technological, and ideological structures.
The resulting state
of affairs will
be deeply different from the present.
7. The ideological change is
mainly that of appreciating life quality (dwelling in
situations of inherent worth) rather than
adhering to an
of living. There will be a profound
awareness of the difference between big and great.
8. Those who subscribe to the foregoing points have
an obligation directly or indirectly to
participate in the attempt to
implement the necessary
of Industrial Forestry, edited by Bill Devall (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books and Earth Island
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updated: September 09, 2012